Professors Marshall and Warren are joint Nobel laureates for their discovery of the cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Barry and Robin challenged long held scientiﬁc understanding of stomach ulcers in the face of extended opposition and scepticism from the scientiﬁc community. Together they transformed our understanding of the cause of stomach ulcers, resulting in a new approach to therapy and new treatments that are simple, cheap, and eﬀective. Not all that long ago, peptic ulcer disease played havoc with people’s lives, its suﬀerers endured chronic and debilitating pain and ran the risk of a life-threatening haemorrhage or ulcer perforation. Now Barry and Robin have already helped millions of people, in Australia and worldwide, and have gone a long way to the disposal of the disease to the dustbins of history. Their contribution to human health, comfort, and productivity is incalculable.